Chang Chi, enrolled in the University of Minnesota in 1920, and received a degree in mining engineering in 1923. After graduating, Chang worked for the Oliver Mining Company as an engineer. After the 1929 market crash, Chang devoted his life to social justice and other political causes. In 1937 he joined the Lincoln Brigade and worked as a truck driver in Spain. He left Spain in 1938 and arrived in Hong Kong to participate in the Second Sino-Japanese War. While living in Hong Kong, Chang published “Spanish Vignettes” about his experience in the Spanish Civil War. He is credited with translating some of Mao Zedong’s works.